




Mathematical concepts and applications
reviewed in this course cover the gamut of math skills from algebra
through basic integral calculus. An important component of the course
will be the training you receive in the use of basic scientific
spreadsheet/calculation and plotting software (EXCEL). We will spend
several hours in the computer lab learning to use these software
packages to solve basic problems from the field of geology. This
experience alone should be of help to you on homework assignments in
your other geology classes (hydrogeology, geophysics, paleontology ...). Download course Syllabus
Prerequisites 
Geology 351 is offered only to geology
majors as an alternative to Math 156 and does not fulfil an elective
requirement for the minor. Geol 351 builds on your prior
experience with
algebra, trigonometry and calculus. Geology 351, for the most
part,
employs math skills you already have and introduces new concepts that
will be
helpful in future geology classes, as well as calculus or other math
classes.
Geology 351
provides a review of
math basics and use of spreadsheets to develop problem solving, data
manipulation,
and plotting skills useful in
other upper
division geology classes. Geol 351 provides several examples of math
applications
in geology.
The course provides a
review of mathematical methods in geology
with an emphasis on geologic examples. You will find that
Waltham’s text
Mathematics: A simple tool for geologists will serve as a useful
present
and future reference text. Problems taken from
Waltham will
give you the opportunity to refine and sharpen your mathematical and
EXCEL
skills.
Be prepared to discuss and work through problems together, but clearly outline and
explain your individual work and approach. This ensures you will be successful on exams.
Stay uptodate! Check the academic calendar at http://provost.wvu.edu/academic_calendar & final exam schedule.
TEXTBOOK AND LAB MANUAL FOR THE CLASS
Office Hours: Generally available for questions following the Tuesday and Thursday classes from 11:15 to noon. Check with via email to arrange alternative meeting times.
 Grading: Your grade is based on homework, inclass assignments, inclass group activities and exams.. Homework, attendance, inclass assignments and computer lab assignments count for 60% of your final grade.
It is essential that you attend class and keep current with reading in the text.
All assignments, laboratory exercises, etc. are due at the start of class.
Late Homework Policy: There is a 10% deduction for homework not handed in when due. An additional 10% will be deducted for each additional day late thereafter. Homework assignments will not be accepted once that assignment has been returned and discussed. I usually have homework back the following class period. This rule will be strictly enforced unless you provide an official university excuse. If you miss class, you can complete inclass worksheets and receive up to 50% credit if completed and submitted the following class period.
The midterm Exam counts 20% and final inclass activities also count 20%. While the final requires skills developed over the semester, the main focus final activities will be on materials covered in the last half of the semester.
For daily lecture content see table with links below
Visit Tom's GeoMath channel, your Mathbff and Kahn Academygeneral content  Reading/Problems Assignment 
1. (Jan 10th)
First Day Activities: Some problems
concerning sea
level rise, water
use, and shrinking
ice caps that illustrate contemporary quantitative applications in geology. See Inclass
problem set related to intro materials (Chapters 1 & 2). Order now! For more about the text and author visit Waltham's page. 
Order your book ASAP! Begin looking through chapters 1 and 2 of Waltham
and the inclass problems Sea Level variations in the Grand Isle area and Excel basics: Video 1, 2 and 3. 
2. (Jan 12) Introduction
I: Elementary mathematical relationships in
geology. Group
Problems; 
Chapters 1 and 2 of Waltham (pages 138). Video discussiond of subscripts 1, exponential notation 2, and linear relationships 3. 
3. (Jan17) Introduction II: Expressing relationships between geological variables. Today's group problems2 for review. 
Chapters 1 and 2 of Waltham (pages 138). For a reminder on the assumptions made in these simple equations see youtube video. 
4. (Jan 19) Math Relationships continued. Have a look at basics.xls (for a quick tour of the basics.xlsx file, see this video) and additional problems for group discussion today. Another inclass problem. 5. (Jan 24) Using Excel to solve problems 2.11 and 2.12: slides and Computer Lab 1: Problem Presentation Format & related concepts associated with the North Sea problem. For a more detailed view of the North Sea data analysis see videos part 1 and part 2. 
Discussion of Archie's law part 1 and 2. The physical relationship of F to porosity.Video discussion of why F decreases as the porosity increases. Chapter 2 problems 2.11 and 2.12 Excel analysis of north sea data from Video related to part iii) in the computer lab: calculating the intercept. 
6.(Jan 26) Today's
discussion reviews mathematical models covered to date, introduces
the Fourier series and introduces problem 2.13. See
Computer Lab 2 (will be handed out in class) which will cover use
of Excel to solve problem 2.13 and general radioactivity decay
problems. See Step2.xls and
have some fun with Fourier
Series. Today's inclass
activity. 
Chapter 2
problem 2.13; add 2.15 to the homework assignment. YouTube video review of the inclass activity. Video discussing logrithmic transformations of exponential functions: Parts 1 and 2. This youtube video guides you through the inclass activity. 
7. (Jan 31)Discussion of radioactive decay problem 2.13 continued with general discussion slides; Some inclass problems associated with exponential functions.  Video overview of exponential decay and growth problems discussed in class. 
8. (Feb 2) For
the day: Review exponential decay and growth relationships, their
solution, intercept determination, organization of presentation and basic
equation manipulation.This Excel file provides several worksheets that illustrate the population problem and series approximation of the base e (see Ln_Expansion.xlsx).
An inclass
problem related
to isostatic equation manipulation; and consider problems
3.10 and 3.11 for group discussion next time. Visit this useful
site for units conversion. 
Read Chapter 3: look over problems 3.10 & 3.11. Video presents some background on the development of Stoke's law. 
9. (Feb 7) Isostacy:
The basics of equation manipulation illustrated using problems in
isostacy. Try this inclass
problem. Look over this additional
problem
takehome isostacy problem concerning isostatic adjustments during long term erosion. We will
discuss in class next time and turn in. Questions about problems 3.10
and 3.11 worksheet
handed out last time? Due at end of class today. 
Continue
your reading Chapters 3 & 4 practice equation manipulation skills by trying to derive all isostacy relationships given in today's handout. 
10. (Feb 9) More on Isostacy, then Computer Lab: Roots of quadratics and operator preference issues (for reference only); see also Quad.xls. We'll spend most of our time on Stokes Law and the settling velocity problem. Turn in problems 2.13 and 2.15.  Turn in book problems 3.10 &
3.11. Readings: Chapters 3
and 4 
11. (Feb14) Slides for the day. Final questions on the settling velocity problems? Introduction to evaluating which mathematical model provides a good representation of your data with computer lab. See fitting lab guide. 

Getting close to midterm  Test coming up ... start preparing 
Start reading chapter 8  
12. (Feb16) Midterm grades and general reminders. We'll go over the fitting lab activities in detail. The practice midterm exam will also be distributed. The settling velocity lab is due today. Please hand in before leaving. 
You should be able to make a lot of progress on this today 
Premidterm review ...  
14. Mid Term Exam (February: Thursday 23rd, rm 325 Brooks Hall)  Mid Term Exam held in rm 325 
15. (Feb 28) Posttest discussion. Final questions and review of fitting lab activities.  Get started
reading Chapter 8 
16. (Mar 2) Slides for the day. Complete the fitting computer lab. Hand problems 4.7 and 4.10 before leaving.  Hand in fitting lab activities along with problems 4.7 and 4.10 
Spring Break (Mar4 through 12)  
Introduction to Differential and Integral Calculus  
17. (Mar 14)Some initial thoughts on derivatives. Have a look at these problems for discussion and consider the slopes of common functions. Start working through these example derivative problems.  Continue reading Chapter 8. 
18. (Mar 16) Derivatives continued  Lecture
Overheads (continued): Visualize your
formula at WolframAlpha & also see See Excel examples in limits.xls. Finish inclassbasic differentiation problems and basic
differentiation rules. Some selfassessment questions. 
Finish reading of Chapter 8 
19. (Mar 21) Lecture
Overheads: Discuss
derivatives of exponential and logrithmic functions. Self
review derivatives
worksheet (this is not a homework assignment, but does
provide opportunities for additional practice). Problems 8.13 and 8.14 from the text . Self assessment 2 to be worked in class. 
Chapter 8: look over problem 8.8, page 148 and problems 8.13 and 8.14. Bring questions to class next
time. 
20. (Mar. 23) Slides for today. See Excel examples in limits.xls. Introduction to Excel Derivatives Lab. Computer problems 8.13 and 8.14 with a reference sheet to help you with the Excel setup. We'll get started on these today Questions about the self review problems (handed out last class).  Text problems 8.13 and 8.14 are due next Tuesday. 
21. (March 28th) Some lecture slides. Self review continued. Discussion of problems 8.16 to 8.18. Some additional material on maxima and minima. Another solver problem: locate the angle that minimizes work expended during faulting. Need some extra practice with derivatives? The trendline. For some additional practice with derivatives, try these problems. Derivatives in reverse. Look over today's handouts  group exercises 1 and 2  for next time.  Turn in 8.13 and 8.14 Begin reading Chapter 9: Integral calculus. 
22. (March 30th) General slides. Introductory discussions of integral calculus (the antiderivative or derivative in reverse). Derivatives in reverse  group exercises 1 and 2.  Turn in Excel problems 8.13 and 8.14 Continue reading Chapter 9 
23. (April 4) Work through all those antiderivatives (indefinite integrals and read through Chapter 9.  Refresh basic integration rules/skills. Get ready for Chapter 9. 
24. (April 6) Introduction
to Integral Calculus: Definite and indefinite integrals. Calculating lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure at depth. Some simple
calculations using Waltham's
integ.xls file. Introduce an integration problem
related to fault propagation folding. Will spend time in class in groups but not due till next time. In class integral assessment problems  hand in before leaving. 

25. (April 11) More practice with integration  Return and discuss assessment questions. Questions concerning lithostatic/hydrostatic pressure computations and the fault area/shortening problems. Bar sand volume problem Question 9.7 to be handed out. Some additional integration problems will be handed out for practice. We'll work in groups if time permits.  Start looking over Problems 9.9 and 9.10. Get started on computer problem 9.7 
26. (April 13) Integral Calculus (continued): Return to the group integration problems from last time and discuss. Questions on the fold shortening problem. Questions about the volume of Mount Fuji problem as discussed in the text? Inclass effort to set up Excel version of problem 9.7 handed out last time.  General discussion with inclass discussion of setup for Excel version of problem 9.7. 
27. (April 18) Slides for the day: General discussion of integration problems. Inclass integration problem. Continue work on Excel problem 9.7. Integration of discontinuous functions. Brief introduction and discussion of problems 9.9 and 9.10. If time permits, we'll go over some additional problems on heat flow and consider some self assessment problems.  Look over
problems 9.9 and 9.10 for next time. Questions on 9.7? 
Grade summary. Begin Exam review.  Look over materials covered in Chapters 8 and 9. Start getting questions together for next week's review sessions. 
28. (April 20) Slides for the day. Questions on problems 9.9 and 9.10. We also look at a final review problem and some inclass problems. If time permits we'll look at the spreading ridge mass problem. Next week's inclass problems will the review problem format and also that of an initial inclass/takehome activity that will be handed out today and will be due next Tuesday. We will get started on this one today.  Hand in problem 9.7. Hand out takehome final activity 1. Due next Tuesday. 
Final inclass group activities 

29. (April 25): Takehome/inclass activities begin today Some general
slides for reference. 
Turn in Excel problem 9.7. Also turn in problems 9.9 and 9.10. Inclass/takehome problems sets 1& 2 
30. (April 27): Brief slides for the day. Turn in volcano volume and slope analysis at beginning of class. Final inclass/takehome activity. Reference slides and review from last week may be of interest.  Turn in Tuesday's problem. Hand out inclass/takehome problem 3 
Exam schedule  57pm, Thursday, May 4th ^{ }  final exam schedule. 
Additional Applications/Topics of interest  
lecture
notes Integral
Solutions Some additional perspectives on problem solving with
integrals 

Gravity problem  Possible inclass take home problem (non calc).  
Trigonometry  
1. Trigonometry  Introduction: lecture slides  problem assignment  Questions about 9.9 and 9.10 Read Chapter 5 
2. The 3 point problem, vector concepts and manipulation: Lecture slides; Inclass problems (2). Excel File illustrating vector computations  
3. Trig review with in class problems; questions about the homework in Chapter 5.  
Statistics  Read Chapter 7 
4. Lecture Overheads: Intro to Statistics with in class computer exercise  
5. Lecture Overheads: Working with probability tables and accompanying EXCEL Exercise  
6. Lecture Overheads: Review  Probabilities, statistical error and significant differences  
7. Computer Lab: Using the ttest to evaluate significant differences  Chapter 7: Problem 7.13, Read Ch. 8 
Pump tests, flood recurrence & landscape evolution  
8. Working pump test data in Excel. Estimating maximum sustained yield from pump test data. Discussion and Handout:  
9. Etimating flood recurrence intervals  
10. Landscape Evolution  
11. Spectral analysis presentation 1 and Step.xls. Spectral analysis presentation 2 and Wrap up chapter 9 discussions  
Comments on inclass/takehome stats exercise & final problem set 
Some Web Resources
Need an Algebra Review?  Practical Algebra Lessons 
Lithosphere loading: Airy and Pratt.  Isostatic Compensation.  Example problems 
Compaction  Porosity/Depth Relationships and Sediment Compaction  
A problem to think about.  
Decompaction  Backstripping  
Problem set  
GutenbergRichter relation  frequency/magnitude 
fractal interrelationships  Fractals: 
fitting data to a straight line  Linear Regression 